joi, 20 februarie 2014

Categoriile gramaticale ale verbului

Imi puteti cere documentul original daca aveti probleme cu acesta...
CATEGORIILE  GRAMATICALE  ALE   VERBULUI

                                                            1. TIMP (s)          2. PERSOANA  (c)            3. NUMAR  (c) 
                                                            4. MOD (s)          5. DIATEZA      (s)            6. ASPECT  (s)
s = categorie specifica verbului ;  c = categorie comuna mai multor parti de vorbire

Formele de baza ale verbului :             F1 –  Infinitivul :  ASK
                                                            F2 –  Past Perfect :  ASKED
                                                            F3 –  Participiul trecut :  ASKED
                                             –  Participiul prezent :  ASKING

A FORMELE  PERSONALE  ALE VERBULUI
1 – au toate categoriile gramaticale ale verbului
2 – dpdv sintactic pot forma singure predicatul
3 – sunt insotite de o serie de“determinanti=         subiect, complement,
   – modificatorul tipic al verbului                 =          adverbul
   – inlocuitorii verbului                                  =          verbele auxiliare   si   verbele modale.

I – Modul Indicativ – cu verbele grupate pe  axele temporale

Axa prezentului    

Timpul
Diateza  activa
Diateza pasiva
PRESENT     SIMPLE

- adevaruri general valabile
- actiuni / stari cu oarecare permanenta
- actiuni / stari obisnuite, ev.repetate
- actiuni/st.care au loc in moment vorbirii
- redarea altor valori temporale :
   a) = prezent cu valoare de viitor
   b) = prezent cu valoare de trecut
I    ASK  –  Eu  intreb

Wood always   floats on water.Lemnul pluteste intotd.
He lives in a village.                 Locuieste intr-un sat.
He rings me up every day.       Imi telefoneaza zilnic.
Who comes next ?                    Cine urmeaza ?
a1) He returns next week.     Se intoarce sapt. viitoare
a2) If it rains on Th will go. Daca ploua joi vom pleca
b) He tells me that you have won.Imi spune ca ai cistig
I  AM  ASKED
Eu sunt intrebat
PRESENT   CONTINUOUS
 (act.exprimata,cuprinde momentul vorbirii)
-act.durative aflate in curs in moment vorbirii
- act repetate in anumite circumst.,in desfasur
- act.care depasesc durata vorbirii (in Tsau V)
- act.repetate in moment vorbire-cu verb’ned.

- suparare, repros+adv’de frecventa (forever.)
- act cu caracter temporar,limitata in timp
- actiune viitoare planificata in prezent
I   AM  ASKING  –   Eu  intreb

He is doing his homework.        Isi face temele.
I never read while I am eating. Niciod.nu citesc cind..
He is living with its parents.      Traieste la parinti.
He is knocking on the door.      Ciocaneste la usa.
He’s always grumbling.            Bombane intr-una.
He is attending the Poly.           Urmeaza Politehnica.
We are leaving tommorow.       Plecam miine.
I   AM  BEING   ASKED
Eu sunt intrebat
PRESENT   PERFECT

= desemneaza evenimente vazute :
- din perspectiva axei prezentului
- anterior momentului vorbirii,   dar..
- cu anterioritate nedefinita (nu e fixata)
(trebuie facuta o paralela cu Past Tense)
- act caracteristica repetata - in orice timp
- act din prop subord = anterioara celei din princip.
I   HAVE   ASKED  –  Eu am intrebat

I’ve painted a picture.                  Am pictat un tablou.

Have you seen him this morning. (acum fiind 11)
Have you heared X play recently ? (nu cu mult timp)

He has often performed in public.A interpretat ades..
Ring me up when you have finished.
I   HAVE   BEEN  ASKED
Eu am fost intrebat
PRESENT   PERFECT  CONTINUOUS (subliniaza desfasurarea continua)
- act inceputa in trecut care continua
- inceputa in trecut si continuata→in moment vorb

- act repetate => vorbitorul exprima repros
I   HAVE  BEEN  ASKING – Eu il intreb (de o vreme)  

I have been waiting for him since 9.  (si inca il astept
You’ve been shoping since early morning  - pina acum
How often have I been telling you not to do this again.
------ 

NEAR  FUTURE     SIMPLE


- act  viitoare, aproapiate de  momentul vorbirii

- act viitoare, urmare a unei intentii prezente

- act viitoare, urmare a unei cauze prezente

- in prop temporale DOAR cind vrea sa sublinieze
  intentia vorbitorului.
AM GOING  TO ASK- am de gind / sint pe cale de a ?

Are you going to specify all the details ?
Ai de gind / vei specifica toate detaliile ?
We are going to spend our holiday in the mountains.
Avem de gind / intentionam sa ne petrecem vacanta ...
It’s going to rain.Look at the clouds.
Cred ca o sa ploua / Vrea / are sa ploua.Uit-te la nori.
He is going to be a pilot when he grows up.
Intentioneaza / are de gind sa se faca pilot cind va...
I AM GOING TO BE ASKED
am de gind / sint pe cale de a fi ? / voi fi intrebat
NEAR  FUTURE    CONTINUOUS
Nu am informatii deocamdata.
AM GOING  TO BE   ASKING
------


II – Modul Conditional

Timpul
Diateza  activa
Diateza pasiva
PRESENT      (Nedefinit / Activ)
PRESENT      CONTINUOUS
I    SHOULD / WOULD                                ASK
I    SHOULD / WOULD                     BE      ASKING

PAST             (Nedefinit / Activ)
PAST             CONTINUOUS
I    SHOULD / WOULD    HAVE                 ASKED
I    SHOULD / WOULD   HAVE    BEEN   ASKING
I  SHOULD/ WOULD HAVE  BEEN    ASKED
------

III – Modul Subjonctiv

Timpul
Diateza  activa
Diateza pasiva
SINTETIC
PRESENT
PAST
PAST   PERFECT


I                                                         ASK
I                                                         ASKED
I                         HAD                       ASKED

ANALITIC
PRESENT :                 SHOULD
                                     WOULD
                                        MAY                   ASK
                                      MIGHT
                                     COULD
(Forma unica pentru toate persoanele)
PERFECT                  SHOULD
                                     WOULD
                                        MAY                HAVE    ASK
                                      MIGHT
                                     COULD
(Forma unica pentru toate persoanele)

IV – Modul Imperativ

A – La persoana a II – a , singular si plural : Infinitivul  scurt  = ASK
B – La celelalte persoane : LET + pronume personal (sau substantiv in Acuzativ) + Infinitivul  scurt  => Ex :
            Let me think ; Let him come ; Let us tray ; Don’t let them (her) go there ;

A FORMELE  IMPERSONALE  ALE VERBULUI

1 – nu au categoriile de timp, persoana, numar
2 – nu pot forma singure predicatul unei propozitii

I – Modurile  nepredicative

Timpul
Diateza  activa
Diateza pasiva
INFINITIVUL
A 1   PRESENT                                  F1
         PRESENT   CONTINUOUS
A 2   PERFECT
         PERFECT   CONTINUOUS

(TO)  ASK
(TO)  BE   ASKING
(TO)  HAVE  ASKED
(TO) HAVE BEEN ASKING

(TO) BE  ASKED
------ 
(TO)  HAVE BEEN  ASKED
------ 
B 3  PARTICIPIUL  TRECUT           F3
ASKED
ASKED

II – Forma  in  “ING”

Timpul
Diateza  activa
Diateza pasiva
PARTICIPIUL
B 1   PRESENT      (Nedefinit)                            
B 2   PERFECT

ASKING
HAVING   ASKED

BEING  ASKED
HAVING  BEEN  ASKED
GERUNDUL
C 1  PRESENT      (Nedefinit)
C 2  PERFECT

ASKING
 HAVING   ASKED

BEING   ASKED
HAVING  BEEN  ASKED

I – Modul Indicativ
cu timpurile grupate in functie de axele temporale

Timpul
Diateza  activa
Diateza pasiva
                     Axa trecutului

PAST  TENSE                                  F2
PAST  TENSE CONTINUOUS
PAST PERFECT
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
FUTURE IN THE PAST
FUTURE IN THE PAST CONTIN.


I        ASKED
I       WAS    ASKING
I       HAD               ASKED
I      HAD  BEEN  ASKING
I    SHOULD / WOULD  ASK
I    SHOULD / WOULD  BE  ASKING


I    WAS  ASKED
I    WAS   BEING    ASKED
I   HAD    BEEN     ASKED
------ 
I  SHOULD / WOULD          BE       ASKED
------
                   Axa prezentului

PRESENT
PRESENT   CONTINUOUS
PRESENT   PERFECT
PRESENT  PERFECT CONTINOUS
NEAR  FUTURE
NEAR  FUTURE    CONTINUOUS


I   ASK
I   AM       ASKING
I    HAVE  ASKED
I    HAVE    BEEN    ASKING

I    AM GOING TO ASK
I    AM GOING  TO BE  ASKING


I   AM  ASKED
I    AM  BEING     ASKED
I   HAVE  BEEN   ASKED
------ 

I  AM GOING TO BE  ASKED
------ 
                      Axa viitorului

FUTURE
FUTURE     CONTINUOUS
FUTURE     PERFECT

FUTURE     PERFECT  CONTINUOUS


I   SHALL / WILL   ASK
I   SHALL / WILL BE ASKING
I   SHALL / WILL   HAVE  ASKED

I   SHALL / WILL  HAVE  BEEN ASKED


I   SHALL / WILL  BE ASKED
------
I SHALL / WILL HAVE BEEN  ASKED
------ 

MODUL  INDICATIV  cu  timpurile grupate in functie de aspect

Timpul
Diateza  activa
                 Diateza pasiva             F3
PRESENT                             SIMPLE
PAST                                     SIMPLE
FUTURE                               SIMPLE
FUTURE IN THE PAST      SIMPLE
                          ASK  F1
                          ASKED  F2
SHALL   /  WILL   ASK   F1
SHOULD / WOULD   ASK  F1
     AM / IS / ARE  ASKED
       WAS / WERE  ASKED
SHALL / WILL  BE  ASKED
SHOULD/ WOULD  BE ASKED
PRESENT    CONTINUOUS
PAST     CONTINUOUS
FUTURE   CONTINUOUS
FUTURE IN THE PAST  CONTINUOUS
        AM / IS / ARE  ASKING
         WAS / WERE  ASKING
SHALL / WILL  BE  ASKING
SHOULD/ WOULD  BE   ASKING
     AM / IS / ARE  BEING  ASKED
       WAS / WERE BEING  ASKED
SHALL / WILL  BE      BEING  ASKED
???????
PRESENT                            PERFECT
PAST                                    PERFECT
FUTURE                              PERFECT
FUTURE IN THE PAST     PERFECT
             HAVE / HAS ASKED F3
             HAD ASKED F3
SHALL/ WILL  HAVE ASKED F3
SHOULD/ WOULD  HAVE  ASKED F3
    HAVE / HAS  BEEN    ASKED
    HAD       BEEN    ASKED
SHALL/WILL  HAVE  BEEN ASKED
SHOULD/ WOULD HAVE BEEN   ASKED
PRESENT   PERFECT-CONT
PAST   PERFECT-CONT
FUTURE    PERFECT-CONT

FUTURE IN THE PAST PERFECT-CONT
  HAVE / HAS  BEEN  ASKING
  HAD   BEEN  ASKING
SHALL / WILL HAVE  BEEN  ASKING

SHOULD/ WOULD   HAVE  BEEN   ASKING
 HAVE / HAS  BEEN  BEING  ASKED
 HAD  BEEN  BEING  ASKED
SHALL/ WILL HAVE  BEEN  BEING   ASKED
????????
NEAR FUTURE              SIMPLE
NEAR FUTURE              CONTINUOUS
I  AM  GOING TO  ASK    F1
I  AM  GOING  TO  BE  ASKING
I  AM  GOING TO  BE   ASKED
------ 
Alte modalitati de a exprima viitorul


Alte modalitati de a exprima actiuni
viitoare dintr-o perspectiva trecuta