luni, 9 aprilie 2018

Comparatives and Superlatives Adjectives and Adverbs

Comparatives and Superlatives

Adjectives and Adverbs

Comparatives and superlatives are types of adjectives and adverbs that are used to compare two or more things or people.

Comparative means to compare one thing to another.

Comparative adjectives and adverbs compare two things or people.


Comparative Adjectives: Jan is taller than Sally.
Sally's blue uniform is more colorful than Jan's pink uniform.

Comparative Adverbs: Sally jumps higher than Jan.
Jan is cheering more quietly than Sally.

Superlative means to the highest degree or the most.

Superlative adjectives and adverbs compare three or more things or people.

Superlative Adjectives:
Mrs. Smith is the shortest person in the group.
Kate is wearing the most colorful outfit.

Superlative Adverbs: 
Mrs. Smith talks most quietly.
Bob and Sam laugh loudest at Mary's joke.

In this lesson, you will learn how to form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs.

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Word FormExamplesComparative RuleExamplesSuperlative
One syllableadjectives ending in "e"finewiselargeAdd "r"finer


Add "st"finest


One syllable adjectives ending with one vowel and one consonantbigfathotDouble the final consonant and add the suffix "er"bigger


Double the final consonant and add the suffix "est"biggest


One syllable adjectives with two vowels or ending with two consonantstallsmartneat

Add the suffix "er"taller



Add the suffix "est"tallest



Two syllable adjectives ending in "y"prettyangryhappyChange the "y" to "i" and add the suffix "er"prettier


Change the "y" to "i" and add the suffix "est"prettiest


Adjectives with two or more syllables not ending in "y"beautiful


Do not change the word

Add the word "more" before the adjective
more beautiful

more important

more dangerous
Do not change the word

Add the word "most" before the adjective
most beautiful

most important

most dangerous
Adjectives with two syllables ending in "er", "le", "ow"


Add the suffix "er"

(If the word ends in "e", just ad "r")

Add the suffix "est"

(If the words ends in "e", just add "st")



Of course there are exceptions to the rules. (Exception means that they do not follow the rules.) 

Here are just a few of the most common adjective exceptions.

WordComparative formSuperlative form

Some two syllable adjectives can follow two rules. Both forms of these words are grammatically correct.

For example:
WordComparative formsSuperlative forms
more friendly
most friendly
more quiet
most quiet
more simple
most simple

The elephants are the loudest animals on the boat.
The giraffes are taller than the penguins.
The most gentle animal is the dove.
The elephant is bigger than the monkey. 

Comparative and Superlative Adverbs

Some adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms. 

They follow most of the same rules as adjectives.

Word FormExamplesComparative RuleExamplesSuperlative RuleExamples
One syllableadverbslate



Add "r" or "er"later



Add "st" or "est"latest



Adverbs with two or more syllablesoften

Do not change the word

Add the word "more" before the adverb
more often

more seldom
Do not change the word

Add the word "most" before the adverb
most often

most seldom
Some two syllable adverbs ending in "y"early
Change the "y" to "i" and add the suffix "er"earlierChange the "y" to "i" and add the suffix "est"earliest
Adverbs that end in "ly"


Do not change the word

Add the word "more" before the adverb
more wisely


more sweetly      
Do not change the word

Add the word "most" before the adverb
most wisely

most quietly

most sweetly

Most comparative and superlative adverbs use "more" and "most" because they end in "ly". Most adverbs end in "ly". 

Here are some more "ly" adverbs that would use "more" and "most":

  • easily
  • boldly
  • bravely
  • fearlessly
  • kindly
  • lightly
  • openly
  • politely
  • properly
  • rudely
  • safely
  • softly
  • silently
  • tenderly
  • weakly
The bird sings more tenderly than the penguin.
The lion roars most boldly of all the animals.

Of course there are exceptions to the rules. Here are just a few of the most common adverb exceptions.

WordComparative formSuperlative form

Farther vs Further: What is the Difference? 

The first bear feels better than the second bear.
The third bear feels the best of all three bears!
The bear in the middle feels the worst.

These were the rules of forming Comparatives and Superlatives. Now that you know them, it is time to practice!

luni, 12 martie 2018

The Home Issue ,The House of the Future?

The Home Issue

Home is Where The Heart Is

The House of the Future?

At Home

Sundays at Rocco's

IDIOMS & PHRASES with the word HOME

Home is where the heart is

Vocabulary and discussion activity

  • Would you rather live in the city or in the countryside? Why?
  • Have you ever dreamed about living on the beach? What would it be like?
  • What are the pros and cons of living in an apartment? What about a suburban house?
  • Have you ever lived in the same home? If not, how many times have you moved?
  • What is your current house like?
  • Do you agree that “home is where the heart is”? What does it mean to you?
  • What is your dream house?

Look at the different types of houses below. Compare and contrast them, thinking about the advantages and disadvantages of living in each one. What would be your order of preference? Why?

A tiny apartment transforms into 24 rooms

Conversation & video activity

·        How you do you imagine a “house of the future”?
·        What will be different in comparison to a typical house nowadays?
·        How has housing evolve over the years, in terms of comfort, technology, etc?
·        How and where did people live in the past?
·        What is an intelligent house?
·        What characteristics will make your life easier? What could potentially complicate your life in your future house?
·        What issues will arise with housing in the future? Will there be housing shortages in the future?
·        Is the housing situation, at present, similar around the world?
·        What would a house on the Moon look like?

Watch the clip about an original house in Hong Kong. Choose the right option to complete the statement.

Length: 4 minutes

1.Apartments in Hong Kong are...  (in residential areas - all the same - in not very high buildings)

2.In Hong Kong there is...  (not much space - not many people - not much money to build)

3.Gary Chang is...  (an engineer - an architect – a banker)

4.Gary Chang's apartment...  (has one room  - is bigger than other Hong Kong apartments - has 24 rooms.)

5.The original characteristic of the apartment is...  (walls that become smaller  - walls that are compact - walls that move)

6.Chang is...  (single – married with two children - living with roommates)

7.When Chang was a child, he lived... (in a tiny apartment - in a bigger apartment - in the same apartment)

8.Chang ... (bought the apartment four years ago - bought the apartment from his parents - renovated the apartment twenty years ago)

9.Which house-related words were not mentioned in this video?  (guestroom   -   lavatory   -  hall)

joi, 7 septembrie 2017

I heart English -- The OK Issue

I Heart English

Expand Your Vocabulary
Synonyms & antonyms

America’s Greatest Word
Listening activity, National Public Radio

Ingrid Michaelson’s OK
Listening activity, song 

Oklahoma, OK! Reading actvity

Words New and Old
Fill the gaps activity

Vocabulary activity – Adjectives, synonyms & antonyms 
Do you repeat the word “OK” too often? Do you always use the words “good” or “bad” to describe everything? Look at other possibilities to expand your vocabulary:

• OK: acceptable, satisfactory, accurate, adequate, all right, approved, convenient, correct, fair, fine, good, in order, permitted, so-so, surely, tolerable.

Not OK: bad, incorrect, intolerable, unacceptable, unsatisfactory, unsuitable, wrong.

TASK: Find synonyms for GOOD and BAD.
Need help? - Try a thesaurus or dictionary of words, which provides  synonyms, and their opposites, or antonyms.  
Try or the Merriam Webster Thesaurus online HERE.


Listening activity, National Public Radio

The ABCs of OK :
It is said to be the most frequently spoken (or typed) word on the planet, bigger even than an infant's ma or Coke.
And it was the first word spoken on the moon.
It's America's answer to Shakespeare.
It's an entire philosophy expressed in two letters.
It's very odd, but it's . . . OK.

Click here to open a small window and listen to the radio segment

Length : 6.22 minutes

Listen to the radio interview and say whether the following ideas are mentioned or not.

1. OK is the world's most popular word.
2.The word appeared in a comic strip in the Boston Morning Post
3.In 1839 OK was used as part of a political campaign.
4.Other abbreviations were popular at the time.
5.Many thought that Martin van Buren was the person who invented the word.
6.President Andrew Jackson had made a spelling mistake.
7.The telegraph contributed to OK's popularity.
8.OK is at present largely used in text messages.
9.Mark Twain used it in his works.
10.The author of Little Women used it once and then changed it.
11.President Woodrow Wilson had a university education.
12.OK represents the American attitude.
13.The phrase "I'm OK, you're OK" represents American pragmatism.
14.Many people don't realize how often they say OK.
15.March 23rd 2012 is officially OK Day.
Click here for the full transcript


Listening activity, song 

Mini Bio  -  Ingrid Michaelson was born on December 8, 1979. She is a singer and songwriter from New York. Her music has been featured in episodes of several popular television shows, movies, as well as in advertising campaigns. Her website is

Listen to the song/watch the clip and answer the questions below.

1.    The writer/singer is probably feeling... happy – sad – unsure
2.    The song is... positive – negative

I just want to be ok, be ok, be ok
I just want to be ok today
I just want to feel today, feel today, feel today
I just want to feel something today.

Open me up and you will see
I'm a gallery of broken hearts
I'm beyond repair, let me be
and give me back my broken parts.

I just want to know today, know today, know today
I just want to know something today
I just want to know today, know today, know today
know that maybe I will be ok.

Open me up and you will see...

Just give me back my pieces
Just give them back to me please
Just give me back my pieces
And let me hold my broken parts.

I just want to be ok, be ok, be ok...
I just want to feel today, feel today, feel today...

Reading Activity

More than 50 languages are spoken in the state of Oklahoma. There are 55 distinct Indian tribes that make the state their home, and each of these tribes has its own language or dialect. The colorful history of the state includes Indians, cowboys, battles, oil discoveries, dust storms, settlements initiated by offers of free land, and forced resettlements of entire tribes.
Oklahoma's Indian heritage is honored in its official state seal and flag. At the center of the seal is a star, and within each of the five arms of the star are symbols representing each of the fivetribes (the "Five Civilized Tribes") that were forcefully resettled into the territory of Oklahoma. The tribes depicted on the seal are the Creeks, the Chickasaw, the Choctaw, the Cherokee, and the Seminoles. The present Oklahoma state flag depicts an Indian war shield, stars, eagle feathers, and an Indian peace pipe, as well as a white man's symbol for peace, an olive branch.
Oklahoma is a word that was made up by the native American missionary Allen Wright. He combined two Choctaw words, "ukla" meaning person and "humá" meaning red to form the word that first appears in a 1866 Choctaw treaty. Oklahoma means "red person."
Oklahoma is the Sooner state. But what is a Sooner? The answer dates back to the Land Run of 1889. Back then, Oklahoma was still a territory. It was full of unclaimed land. President Cleveland signed an exciting new bill which allowed people to legally claim and settle on some of this land. Each interested person could claim 160 acres.
On April 22, 1889, at 12:00 pm the hopeful settlers got their chance. Men entered with their wagons and horses. They all hoped to find the best plots available. This became known as the "Land Run of 1889."
People who entered the district illegally to claim lands, before the designated entry time, were called "Sooners."

Read the following sentences and answer T (true), F (false) or IDS (It doesn’t say)
1.Oklahoma is considered a land of cowboys and Indians, among other things.
2.All tribes were forced to resettle.
3.A peace pipe is shown on the official seal of the state.
4.The word Oklahoma was not an original terms.
5.The Sooners were people who officially arrived first to claim land in the run of 1889.
6.By 1889 Oklahoma was already a state of the union.
7.Women could not participate in the Land Run.
8.The competition for lands always started at noon.

Fill the Gaps Activity

On March 23 1839, Boston Morning Post made up the word “OK” it was a short version of “oll korrect”, an incorrectly spelled alternative of “all correct”.

It was never meant to be (1) ____, but until today and for many years ahead this word has gained the title of the most used word in the world. According to Wikipedia, in English spoken countries the most popular word is “THE”, (2) ____ “OK” is the most popular word worldwide.

Some of the oldest words in the English language are "I", "we", “who”, "two", "three" and “five”. (3) ____, the word “one” came some time after the word “two”. This is what researchers from Reading University in England say. They used special computer software to (4) ____ how old English words are and to track their changes. The software also predicted the words "dirty", "bad", "because", “smell” and "squeeze" might (5) ____ out completely (6) ____ the year 3000. Lead researcher Dr. Mark Page said that one day we might have a (7) ____ Stone-Age English phrasebook. He told Britain’s ‘The Times’ newspaper: “If a time traveler wanted to go back in time…we could probably (8) ____ up a little phrasebook of the modern words that are likely to have sounded similar back then.”

Dr. Page said that some English words are (9) ____ at least 15,000 to 20,000 years old. He believes the sounds used back then would still be understood today. His research on the evolution of words (10) ____ at a time when English is changing rapidly. The Internet, technology and globalization are having a huge impact on our vocabulary. The (11) ____ words “blog”, “podcast”, and “gigabyte” were alien to most people at the (12) ____ of the century. Terms such as “global warming”, “credit crunch” and “global village” would not have been understood (13) ____ decades ago. It seems likely our modern methods of communication will continue to transform the English language. However, it still might be a (14) ____ before language from text messages such as CUL8R (see you later) becomes accepted English.

Put the correct words to fill the gaps in the text:

1. (a) Popular (b) Famous (c) Abused (d) Ignored
2. (a) Also (b) However (c) In addition (d) On the contrary
3. (a) Strange (b) Stranger (c) Strangers (d) Strangely
4. (a) analysis (b) analyze (c) analyzed (d) analyzing
5. (a) die (b) death (c) dead (d) deceased
6. (a) for (b) on (c) by (d) at
7. (a) basilica (b) basically (c) basic (d) basics
8. (a) sketch (b) draw (c) doodle (d) paint

9. (a) probably (b) probability (c) probable (d) probables 
10. (a) reaches (b) moves (c) goes (d) comes

11. (a) daytime (b) everyday (c) daily (d) daydream
12. (a) tone (b) tern (c) tune (d) turn
13. (a) few (b) couple (c) several (d) numerous
14. (a) while (b) whiling (c) whilst (d) whiled

America's Greatest Word
1-Y 2-N 3-N 4-Y 5-Y 6-Y 7-Y 8-N 9-N 10-Y 11-Y 12-Y 13-N 14-Y 15-N
1.sad   2.positive
Oklahoma, OK!
1-T 2-F (just 5 tribes) 3-F (it appears on the flag) 4-T 5-F they entered illegally) 6-F (it was a territory) 7-IDS 8-F (there was just one land run)
Words New and Old
1a / 2b / 3d/ 4b/ 5a / 6c / 7c / 8b / 9a / 10d / 11b / 12d / 13c / 14a